Regarding spinal surgeries, vertebroplasty vs. kyphoplasty are a few of the most debated and least invasive procedures. Each procedures are similar and serve a related purpose: to stabilize an unstable spinal joint, normally after a vertebral compression fracture (VCF) or spinal compression fracture (SCF). These procedures are each referred to as vertebral augmentation surgeries.
The spine comprises a column of stacked bones, with special discs between each bone. Together, the discs and bones make the spine mobile and immune to shock and shear forces to a certain degree. This permits us to bend over, jump, and even fall without significant injury.
But a sequence is barely as strong as its weakest link, and in lots of cases, this weak link is the integrity and bone density of essentially the most stressed spinal joints or vertebrae. Conditions like osteoporosis can take a toll on the body’s bone density, as can a sedentary lifestyle. Weaker bones are easier to crack, and certain vertebrae – especially those within the lower back and neck – may have to endure more significant strain over time than most. After a certain point, even a light-weight sneeze or picking your luggage up off the ground may end up in a fracture.
Understanding Vertebroplasty vs. Kyphoplasty
Amongst individuals with stronger or healthier bones, compression fractures are frequently the results of sudden and violent trauma, like a fall from a terrific height or a automotive accident. The whiplash of a automotive crash or the direct impact of falling down a flight of stairs can crack the vertebra.
A cracked vertebra loses its integrity, which may cause the spine to shift. Imagine a constructing, and picture if half of the load-bearing partitions or pillars on one floor suddenly caved in. Gravity would cause the remainder of the constructing to sag and lean to at least one side, if not collapse. In humans, a severe vertebral fracture may cause spinal deformation (akin to severe kyphosis or a hunched back), nerve impingement, and chronic pain in much the identical way.
Each vertebroplasty and vertebroplasty address spinal fractures through the use of special biocompatible bone cement to fill within the cracks in an unstable vertebra and stop further instability and damage. One is used to attenuate the chance of a collapsed vertebra. The opposite is used to reverse spinal deformation brought on by a vertebral compression fracture potentially.
Vertebroplasty vs. Kyphoplasty: How They Are Performed?
Each vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures with the identical general preparation – each normally require x-ray imaging and utilize local anesthesia. The patient is usually awake but may elect to be sedated.
Other medications are used to maintain a patient calm as an alternative due to the risk of general anesthesia. It isn’t needed to perform minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. In each cases, a patient lies on their stomach (face down) while a specialist uses a needle to inject a dye into the back and an x-ray machine to spotlight the realm across the affected joint.
Within the case of vertebroplasty, once the affected joint is visible, the doctor guides a needle into the affected joint and mixes a fluid bone cement using a special liquid and powder combination. The resulting fluid is slowly pumped into the affected joint, filling the cracks and hardening the bone. At this point, the 2 conditions diverge. Because of this, the cracked vertebra fuses again, and the chance of spinal instability is alleviated.
Within the case of kyphoplasty, the goal vertebra has already collapsed and yet stays unstable. Which means the bone has given way under pressure but could still pose a danger to the encircling nerves and is causing significant pain.
To assist correct the wedging, a balloon is inserted through the needle first. This is analogous to the variety of balloon utilized in heart surgeries. The balloon is inflated with liquid, pushing apart the fractured bone and making a small cavity throughout the vertebra. During this process, since the patient is prone, the pressure from the balloon should help correct the wedging and improve the spine’s integrity.
Once the cavity is created, the balloon is slowly deflated by removing the liquid and the balloon itself. One other needle is used to insert a thicker bone cement than in vertebroplasty, but this time, it fills the newly formed cavity throughout the bone.
In vertebroplasty vs kyphoplasty, the patient is kept within the clinic for just a few hours to make sure that the cement hardens appropriately and to attenuate the chance of post-surgical complications. While there isn’t a need for an incision or general anesthesia, there are still just a few risks, including spinal nerve compression, leakage, bleeding, or infection. Observing a resting patient can minimize these early risks and help ensure success.
When Is Surgery Crucial?
As a general rule, a health care provider is not going to recommend vertebral augmentation surgery if the patient’s condition is stable, meaning their spine shouldn’t be in peril of shifting, and their symptoms have passed. To contemplate vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, a patient will need to have attempted to deal with their pain and fracture through more conservative treatments, akin to a back brace, medication, physical therapy, and ample rest, to no avail.
There are specific contraindications for surgery or conditions that might make surgery inadvisable. These include blood clotting disorders or using blood-thinning medication. Depending on the condition and dosage, your doctor should allow surgery for those who stop taking your medication for a brief period before the procedure. A recent infection may also rule out surgery until more time has passed.
Do I Need a Vertebroplasty or a Kyphoplasty?
In the case of your spine health, time is of the essence. In case your doctor recommends a kyphoplasty or an identical procedure, understanding the way it is performed and your prognosis after treatment can assist you offset the concern that comes with spinal surgery.
In case your doctor suspects a compression fracture, stay calm. While surgical intervention is on the table for some instances, it’s essential to keep in mind that a fracture in and of itself doesn’t at all times require stabilization.
Many compression fractures are inherently stable, and any symptoms of pain or lack of mobility could be solved through careful pain management, mobilization, and physical therapy. Yes, even a compression fracture within the spine can and infrequently will heal “by itself” with a correct treatment course involving supportive exercises and equipment to attenuate the chance of further injury and improve quality of life.
Nonetheless, while nonsurgical interventions can go a great distance towards managing pain symptoms and even improving mobility and quality of life through patient-specific therapies and physical conditioning, there are circumstances where the soundness of the spine is compromised to the purpose that surgical intervention becomes obligatory to attenuate the chance of paralysis, or further damage to the spine. Unstable compression fractures along the vertebrae are a typical example of such circumstances.